Within a year more than a thousand press stories had been released about the drug. In the early s, origins crack majority of cocaine being shipped to the United Origins crack was landing in Miamiand originated in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic. It was cheap, simple to produce, ready to use, and highly profitable for dealers to origins crack. Incocaine -related hospital emergencies rose by 12 percent, from 23, to 26, Inthese incidents increased percent, from 26, to 55,
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Within a year more than a thousand press stories had been released about the drug. In the early s, the majority of cocaine being shipped to the United States was landing in Miami , and originated in the Bahamas and Dominican Republic. It was cheap, simple to produce, ready to use, and highly profitable for dealers to develop. In , cocaine -related hospital emergencies rose by 12 percent, from 23, to 26, In , these incidents increased percent, from 26, to 55, Between and , cocaine incidents increased to 94, By , crack was reported to be available in the District of Columbia and all but four states in the United States.
The crack index aimed to create a proxy for the percentage of cocaine related incidents that involved crack. Crack was a virtually unknown drug until This abrupt introductory date allows for the estimation and use of the index with the knowledge that values prior to are zero.
The U. The same index used by Fryer, Levitt and Murphy  was then implemented in a study that investigated the impacts of crack cocaine across the United States.
In cities with populations over , the instances of crack cocaine were twice as high as those in cities with a population less than , These indicators show that the use of crack cocaine was most impactful in urban areas.
States and regions with concentrated urban populations were affected at a much higher rate, while states with primarily rural populations were least affected.
Maryland, New York and New Mexico had the highest instances of crack cocaine, while Idaho, Minnesota and Vermont had the lowest instances of crack cocaine use. Crime[ edit ] D. Between and , the homicide rate for black males aged 14 to 17 more than doubled, and the homicide rate for black males aged 18 to 24 increased nearly as much.
This gave many inner-city residents the opportunity to move up the “economic ladder” in a drug market that allowed dealers to charge a low minimum price. Crack cocaine use and distribution became popular in cities that were in a state of social and economic chaos such as Los Angeles and Atlanta. Sentencing disparities[ edit ] In , the U. Congress passed laws that created a to 1 sentencing disparity for the possession or trafficking of crack when compared to penalties for trafficking of powder cocaine ,     which had been widely criticized as discriminatory against minorities, mostly blacks, who were more likely to use crack than powder cocaine.
Further, the data shows the discrepancy between lengths of sentences of crack cocaine and heroin. The majority of crack imprisonments are placed in the 10—20 year range, while the imprisonments related to heroin use or possession range from 5—10 years which has led many to question and analyze the role race plays in this disparity.
Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness argues that punitive laws against drugs like crack cocaine adopted under the Reagan Administration’s War on drugs resulted in harsh social consequences, including large numbers of young black men imprisoned for long sentences, the exacerbation of drug crime despite a decrease in illegal drug use in the United States, increased police brutality against the black community resulting in injury and death for many black men, women, and children.
Since African Americans were the majority users of crack cocaine, it provided a platform for the government to create laws that were specific to crack.
This was an effective way to imprison black people without having to do the same to white Americans. Thus, there was a discourse of African Americans and a perpetuated narrative about crack addiction that was villainous and problematic.
The criminalizing of African American crack users was portrayed as dangerous and harmful to society. Alexander writes that felony drug convictions for crack cocaine fell disproportionately on young black men, who then lost access to voting, housing, and employment opportunities.
These economic setbacks led to increased violent crime in poor black communities as families did what they had to do to survive. Alexander explains the process of someone who is caught with crack: Second, the aftermath of permanent stigmas attached to someone who has done jail-time for crack, like being marked a felon on their record.
This impacts job opportunity, housing opportunity, and creates obstacles for people who are left with little motivation to follow the law, making it more likely that they will be arrested again. Dark Alliance series[ edit ] San Jose Mercury News journalist Gary Webb sparked national controversy with his Dark Alliance series which alleged that the influx of Nicaraguan cocaine started and significantly fueled the s crack epidemic. They also contributed some money to the Contra cause. But we did not find that their activities were the cause of the crack epidemic in Los Angeles, much less in the United States as a whole, or that they were a significant source of support for the Contras.
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